Created by Rijk de Wet

Reviewed by

Wojciech Sas, PhD and Steven Wooding

Last updated:

May 20, 2024

- What are Roman numerals?
- How to use the Roman numerals converter?
- The Roman numerals chart — Roman numbers 1 to 1000
- How do I read Roman numerals?
- How do I convert numbers to Roman numerals?
- FAQ

Whether you're trying to decipher an ancient Latin text or you just want to add the year on your high school jacket, our **Roman numerals converter** has you covered. Knowing **how to convert numbers to Roman numerals** and back can be a **surprisingly** handy trick for historians, mathematicians, astrologists, and even lawmakers.

So, whether you'd like to **learn how to read Roman numerals** or just want to **consult a Roman numerals chart**, you're in the right place with our Roman numerals generator. I know that $\textrm{I}$I, for one, ❤️ Roman numerals!

## What are Roman numerals?

We see Roman numerals **everywhere** — clocks, musical chords, historical dates, legal documents, astronomy, and even football team names. But what are they, where do they come from, and how do they work?

The **Roman numeral** number system represents numeric values with **letters of the Latin alphabet**. You can take a look at the chart further down to see how they correspond.

The Roman numeral system arose in ancient Rome and was used in most of Europe until the Middle Ages. It was **primarily used to count with**, so it has **no representation for negative numbers** (as these can't be used to describe a discrete number of objects); **nor for the number zero**, as everyday people hadn't even thought of these concepts yet.

## How to use the Roman numerals converter?

If you're in a hurry and just need to **convert a number to Roman numerals**, look no further than the **Roman numerals converter**. Here's how to use it:

**Enter the number**you'd like to convert to Roman numerals. Because Roman numerals can't represent fractions, the number zero, negative numbers, or numbers above 3,999,999, the Roman numerals generator will reject such inputs.The Roman numerals calculator will determine your number's

**equivalent Roman numeral**and display it below.If your number has a complicated Roman numeral, we'll also

**break it down with an explanation**.

If you'd still like to know **how to read Roman numerals** better than even our Roman numerals converter can, you should keep reading!

## The Roman numerals chart — Roman numbers 1 to 1000

As we've said above, Roman numerals use **letters of the alphabet** to represent **numeric values**. In the Roman numerals chart below, we can see which letter corresponds to which value.

Roman numeral | Value |
---|---|

$\textrm{I}$I | 1 |

$\textrm{V}$V | 5 |

$\textrm{X}$X | 10 |

$\textrm{L}$L | 50 |

$\textrm{C}$C | 100 |

$\textrm{D}$D | 500 |

$\textrm{M}$M | 1,000 |

In addition, when a Roman numeral has **a line over it**, its value is **multiplied by 1,000**. $\overline{\textrm{V}}$V , for example, signifies 5,000. This extension to the Roman numeral system **wasn't widely used**, and competing systems had other methods, but adding the overhead line will generally convey the correct idea to a knowledgeable modern audience.

Roman numeral | Value |
---|---|

$\overline{\textrm{V}}$V | 5,000 |

$\overline{\textrm{X}}$X | 10,000 |

$\overline{\textrm{L}}$L | 50,000 |

$\overline{\textrm{C}}$C | 100,000 |

$\overline{\textrm{D}}$D | 500,000 |

$\overline{\textrm{M}}$M | 1,000,000 |

## How do I read Roman numerals?

The numerals in the above chart are just the **building blocks**. You can combine them to create any integer you can think of — within the limits we've established, of course. Let's see how this is done!

Our everyday number system of Arabic numerals uses a place-value system, meaning a digit's position in a number determines how much it's worth. For example, the **digit "2"** represents a **value of 2** in 42, whereas it represents **20** in the number 123.

In contrast, the Roman numerals all have **fixed values**. $\textrm{V}$V always means 5, and $\textrm{M}$M always means 1,000 — regardless of where they're placed in the string of Roman numerals. Instead, the numerals must **be combined** to represent **intermediary values** with the help of addition and subtraction:

When two numerals are side-by-side, and the first is of equal or greater value than the second, their values are added together.

$\textrm{I}$I (1) combines with itself to create $\textrm{II}$II (2).

$\textrm{V}$V (5) and $\textrm{I}$I (1) combine to create $\textrm{VI}$VI (6).

$\textrm{C}$C (100) and three $\textrm{X}$X's (each 10) combine to create $\textrm{CXXX}$CXXX (130).

When the first letter of a numeral pair has a lesser value than the second, the first subtracts from the second.

$\textrm{I}$I (1) and $\textrm{V}$V (5) combine to create $\textrm{IV}$IV (4).

$\textrm{X}$X (10) and $\textrm{C}$C (100) combine to create $\textrm{XC}$XC (90).

Here are a few easy numbers converted to Roman numbers from 1 to 1000 for you to sink your teeth into — see if you can make sense of them!

1 | $\textrm{I}$I | 10 | $\textrm{X}$X | 100 | $\textrm{C}$C |

2 | $\textrm{II}$II | 20 | $\textrm{XX}$XX | 200 | $\textrm{CC}$CC |

3 | $\textrm{III}$III | 30 | $\textrm{XXX}$XXX | 300 | $\textrm{CCC}$CCC |

4 | $\textrm{IV}$IV | 40 | $\textrm{XL}$XL | 400 | $\textrm{CD}$CD |

5 | $\textrm{V}$V | 50 | $\textrm{L}$L | 500 | $\textrm{D}$D |

6 | $\textrm{VI}$VI | 60 | $\textrm{LX}$LX | 600 | $\textrm{DC}$DC |

7 | $\textrm{VII}$VII | 70 | $\textrm{LXX}$LXX | 700 | $\textrm{DCC}$DCC |

8 | $\textrm{VIII}$VIII | 80 | $\textrm{LXXX}$LXXX | 800 | $\textrm{DCCC}$DCCC |

9 | $\textrm{IX}$IX | 90 | $\textrm{XC}$XC | 900 | $\textrm{CM}$CM |

10 | $\textrm{X}$X | 100 | $\textrm{C}$C | 1,000 | $\textrm{M}$M |

**The pattern continues** for larger numbers. 2,000 is $\textrm{MM}$MM, 3,000 is $\textrm{MMM}$MMM, 4,000 is $\textrm{M}\overline{\textrm{V}}$MV, and so on.

I can hear you asking — How do I convert a more complex number to Roman numerals? What is 2021 in Roman numerals, for example? Jump over to the next section to find out!

## How do I convert numbers to Roman numerals?

If we want to convert a number that has **more than one significant digit** (like 365 or 2021), we can follow a simple formula:

Express the number as a

**sum of its place values**.- $365 = 300 + 60 + 5$365=300+60+5;
- $2021 = 2,000 + 20 + 1$2021=2,000+20+1 (notice that we ignore the zero between the two $2$2's!)

**Convert each value in the sum**to its Roman numeral. It's easy with the table above!- For $365$365:
- $300\rightarrow\textrm{CCC}$300→CCC
- $60\rightarrow\textrm{LX}$60→LX
- $5\rightarrow\textrm{V}$5→V

- For $2021$2021:
- $2,000\rightarrow\textrm{MM}$2,000→MM
- $20\rightarrow\textrm{XX}$20→XX
- $1\rightarrow\textrm{I}$1→I

- For $365$365:
**Put the symbols together**to convert your number to Roman numerals.$365\rightarrow\textrm{CCC}\cdot\textrm{LX}\cdot\textrm{V}\rightarrow\textrm{CCCLXV}$365→CCC⋅LX⋅V→CCCLXV

$2021\rightarrow\textrm{MM}\cdot\textrm{XX}\cdot\textrm{I}\rightarrow\textrm{MMXXI}$2021→MM⋅XX⋅I→MMXXI

If you're still having trouble understanding our Roman ancestors' number system, playing around with our Roman numerals calculator (even just for $\textrm{X}$X minutes) will get you there!

## FAQ

### What is 4 in Roman numerals?

4 is `IV`

in Roman numerals. It consists of `I`

and `V`

, the Roman numerals for 1 and 5. Because the `I`

is placed before the `V`

, we must subtract 1 from 5, and so `IV = 5 − 1 = 4`

.

### What are the Roman numerals?

The Roman numerals are `I`

, `V`

, `X`

, `L`

, `C`

, `D`

, and `M`

. Each of the Roman numbers 1 to 1000 represent a numeric value. Which represents which is tabulated below:

Roman numeral | Value |
---|---|

| 1 |

| 5 |

| 10 |

| 50 |

| 100 |

| 500 |

| 1,000 |

### What is XI in Roman numerals?

`XI`

is the Roman numeral for 11, as it consists of `X`

(10) and `I`

(1) added together. The Roman numeral `XI`

is commonly used in soccer, where the term "starting `XI`

" refers to the eleven players who will be on the field when the match begins.

### What number is LV in Roman numerals?

The Roman numeral `LV`

represents the number 55. In 2021, the NFL hosted the 55th annual Super Bowl and labeled it with `LV`

. They've been doing this since the '70s.

### What is 19 in Roman numerals?

19 in Roman numerals is `XIX`

. We can break `19`

up into a sum of `10 + 9`

. In Roman numerals, `10`

is `X`

, and `9`

is `IX`

(`10 – 1`

), so together `19`

is `XIX`

.

### What is XXXVII in Roman numerals?

`XXXVII`

is the Roman numeral for 37. It's constructed of

`XXX`

(30);`V`

(5); and`II`

(2),

which are all added together to result in `30 + 5 + 2 = 37`

. This particular Roman numeral `XXXVII`

commonly refers to a titanic Super Bowl match that occurred in early 2003.

### What is 1980 in Roman numerals?

1980 in Roman numerals is `MCMLXXX`

. It's constructed of

`M`

(1000);`CM`

(900); and`LXXX`

(80).

### What is 1984 in Roman numerals?

1984 in Roman numerals is `MCMLXXXIV`

. It's constructed of

`M`

(1000);`CM`

(900);`LXXX`

(80); and`IV`

(4).

Rijk de Wet